26 September 2020 10 5K Report

Millions of peoples are now suffering from kidney diseases and other diseases ,and with epidemic spread ,need more concern about levels of metals and anions in drinking water is related to the dissolved minerals in the water.  General hardness is a misleading term that is often confused with carbonate hardness or temporary hardness, which is actually related to alkalinity and relates to the "buffering capacity" of the water (its ability to resist pH changes).  This means that if the carbonate hardness is high then the pH will be extremely stable or alternatively if the carbonate hardness is low the pH of the water will be able to fluctuate easily.  The term general hardness should be replaced with a simpler term: Hardness.      Water hardness is the measurement of the amount of ions which have lost two electrons (divalent cations) dissolved in the tested water and is therefore, related to total dissolved solids.  The more divalent cations dissolved in the water the "harder" the water.  Generally the most common divalent cations are calcium and magnesium, however other divalent cations may contribute including iron, strontium, aluminum, and manganese.  Typically the other divalent cations contribute little to no appreciable additions to the water hardness measurement.  A stream or river's hardness reflects the geology of the catchment's area and sometimes provides a measure of the influence of human activity in a watershed.  For example, sites that have active or abandoned mines nearby often have higher concentrations of iron ions in the water resulting in a very high hardness degree.b so do we care for hardness of water?      

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