Indium is rare element that not familiar,

Indium is a relatively rare element that has had limited use for decades as a metal, in alloys, and for electronics applications. During the past 15 years, global demand for indium has increased several-fold, driven by the novel use of indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films in the production of flat-panel displays (such as liquid crystal displays [LCDs]), touch screens, and other electronic devices.1,2 ITO is a sintered ceramic material typically consisting of 90% indium oxide (In2O3) and 10% tin oxide (SnO2). Exposures to indium metal and indium compounds (including indium hydroxide [In(OH)3], indium oxide, and ITO) may occur during ITO production, ITO use for the creation of thin films, and reclamation. The bulk of the ITO industry is located in Japan, with some activity in the United States, China, Taiwan, and South Korea.3

As of May 2010, 10 clinical cases of lung disease in indium workers from three countries (Japan, United States, and China) had been reported.2 Seven cases were described as interstitial lung disease (ILD) characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with or without emphysema. Three cases were described as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Individually, these 10 case reports left unclear why some workers developed ILD ,so how the element is toxic?

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