A revolutionary Finding awaits the final Clinch: c-global

Otto E. Rossler

Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tubingen, Germany

(December 22, 2014)


The global nature of the speed of light in the vacuum, c, was given up by Einstein in December of 1907. A revival of the status c had enjoyed during the previous 2½ years, from 1905-1907, is in the literature for several years. The consequences of c-global for cosmology and black-hole theory are staggering. Since black holes are an acute concern to date, the question of whether a c-global transform of the Einstein equation can be demonstrated represents a vital issue.


Imagine Einstein’s c were not just a local constant of nature everywhere, as one reluctantly believes since late 1907, but rather a global constant. The return to this 1905-1907 view would revolutionize physics. For example, cosmic expansion which requires its speed to be added to the local c would no longer be a physical option. Secondly, quantum mechanics would cease to generate problems in its unification with general relativity. Thirdly, black holes would be stable and hence be voracious at any size.

But is the speed of light c not a global constant anyhow? While every layman and most every physicist believes so, this status was lost by c in late 1907. To witness, just look at the famous “Shapiro time delay”: Light from a distant satellite has, when grazing the sun on its way towards earth, an increased travelling time compared to the sun’s absence [1]. This experimentally verified implication of Einstein’s theory is canonically believed to reflect a locally reduced speed of light c [1]. With c-global, however, an increased depth of the space-time funnel around the sun is keeping c constant along the whole path [2].

Is this unfamiliar proposal physically correct? There are two pieces of evidence, each sufficient. First, the famous Schwarzschild solution of the Einstein field equations was shown to possess a global-c transform [3]; hence the global constancy of c exists mathematically. Second, the famous “equivalence principle” between ordinary kinematic acceleration and gravitation – postulated by Einstein in late 1907 – is based on special relativity alone with its global c. The equivalence principle was indeed recently proved not to imply a reduction of c downstairs in the constantly accelerating Einstein rocketship [4]. The third piece of evidence exists by implication: a global-c transform of the full Einstein field equations. It only waits to be written down.

Why not rather wait with granting c-global a broad visibility in the scientific community, given the embarrassing cosmological consequence mentioned? It is the other implication (regarding black holes) which justifies the visibility. Black holes currently have a chance to get produced down on earth. Only an absolutely un-ignorable global-c transform of the full Einstein field equation can possibly force the 6 years old LSAG “safety report” of the most prestigious experiment of history to be renewed in time, before the start at twice world-record energies planned in two months. The reward to the representative of Science magazine who accepts this paper for publication will lie in the emergence-in-time of the existing but not yet made-explicit “global-c Einstein equation.” This task is literally superhuman because finding the transform requires a unique strength of mind or else serendipity and hence predictably takes decades. Therefore, the manpower – the many alerted readers – of Science represents a planetary resource needed for once in the face of the self-closing time window.

I thank Wolfgang Müller-Schauenburg and Boris Hagel for a discussion. For J.O.R.


[1] I.I. Shapiro, Fourth test of general relativity. Physical Review Letters 13, 789-791 (1964).

[2] A half-pseudosphere replaces the Flamm paraboloid.

[3] O.E. Rossler, Abraham-like return to constant c in general relativity: Gothic-R theorem demonstrated in Schwarzschild metric. Fractal Spacetime and Noncommutative Geometry in Quantum and High Energy Physics 2, 1-14 (2012). Preprint on: http://www.wissensnavigator.com/documents/chaos.pdf

[4] O.E. Rossler, Equivalence principle implies gravitational-redshift proportional space dilation and hence global constancy of c. European Scientific Journal 10(9), 112-117 (2014).

(Oct. 22, 2020)

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