How do forests influence avalanches and how protecting of the avalanches?

Forests play a very important protective role related to the avalanches. They act as a safeguard for communities and infrastructure against landslides, rockfalls, debris flows and avalanches. Compared with man-made barriers, mountain forests constitute a much less costly and more ecologically friendly means of protection. But how does a forest influence snow masses and thus prevent them from reaching the valley bottom and causing damage? Both standing and fallen trees stabilize the snow-pack and are thus capable of preventing avalanches or at least reducing the size of the slab that is released. In addition, the canopy gives rise to a different snow-pack structure in the forest than in the open field. In the forest, snow falls from the trees, and the canopy changes the energy balance of the snow surface. As a consequence of these factors, the forest snow-pack is subject to small-scale inconsistencies, and the weak layers that play a critical role in the release of avalanches can form less easily. Furthermore, the forest is able to stem and stop small avalanches.

Can you provide us the examples of afforestation of the areas endangered by avalanches? SWOT analysis are welcome; the examples of afforestation from the Alpine area with the altitude of 1500-1700 m.a.s.l.

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