12 October 2020 16 6K Report

Albert Einstein departed from constant light speed in General Relativity in his 1921 lectures at Princeton. The reference is given in his equation 107 where L is the ratio between local light velocity in a gravity field divided the usual constant light speed in flat space.


Researchers including Peter Bergmann argued that the direction of light would change but not the magnitude. Other researchers including Max Born argued that Einstein intended the magnitude of light speed to change in a gravity field. The answer is found in Einstein's following equation for alpha where L occurs in the denominator as well as in the differential, showing that Einstein's velocity of light is a scalar, the local speed of light in a gravity field relative to the cosmic standard. Local light speed slows down as gravity increases, and approaches zero at an event horizon, explaining why nothing escapes.

As analysis continues the widely accepted equations of energy and momentum make an incomplete set when local light speed is not constant. The set can be completed by Einstein's equation 107, giving exact calculations for well defined cases.

Results show that when local light speed changes, the local measurement of mass also changes. Electric and magnetic properties of vacuum space also change.

Planck h is the only parameter of space time that doesn't change when Einstein's equation 107 is applied in energy and momentum equations over all examples of General Relativity.

In exchange of energy between physical objects and vacuum space where E=hf for quanta and dE/df = n*h for large collections of quanta, the equation 107 gives an answer (n=1) which is general relativity. In the hierarchy of Plancks at extreme high energy density (n>1) h becomes variable. Other cases of extreme low energy density (n=0) represent the local end of time and collapse of a false vacuum.

In terms of Nobel Prize winner Roger Penrose the values of n may be used to represent his U unitary evolution in space time, and his R state reductions may be expressed by the change from one n to another.

Parameter n is a quantum number and h represents the quantized spin angular momentum of localized stress energy curvature in vacuum.

Implication of this representation is that vacuum space time has a quantum state that doesn't change over all of General Relativity. It doesn't explain why h remains constant when other local properties of vacuum change.

Why Is Planck h Constant In General Relativity?

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